Q: What is it about soft pastel that you find so intriguing that you use it as your primary fine art medium?
A: For starters it’s the medium that I fell in love with many years ago. I recently read this article online, “What is Pastel?” by Mike Mahon, and will quote it because it neatly sums up what I love about working with pastel.
Pastel is the most permanent of all media when applied to conservation ground and properly framed. Pastel has no liquid binder that may cause it to oxidize with the passage of time as oftentimes happens with other media.
In this instance, Pastel does not refer to pale colors, as the word is commonly used in cosmetic and fashion terminology. The pure, powdered pigment is ground into a paste with a minimum amount of gum binder, rolled into sticks and dried. The infinite variety of colors in the Pastel palette range from soft and subtle to hard and brilliant.
An artwork is created by stroking the stick of dry pigment across an abrasive ground, embedding the color in the “tooth” of the ground. If the ground is completely covered with Pastel, the work is considered a Pastel painting; whereas, leaving much of the ground exposed produces a Pastel sketch. Techniques vary with individual artists. The Pastel medium is favored by many artists because it allows a spontaneous approach. There is no drying time, therefore, no change in color occurs after drying as it does in other media.
Did you know that a particle of Pastel pigment seen under a microscope looks like a diamond with many facets? It does! Therefore, Pastel paintings reflect light like a prism. No other medium has the same power of color or stability.
Historically, Pastel can be traced back to the 16th century. Its invention is attributed to the German painter, Johann Thiele. A Venetian woman, Rosalba Camera, was the first to make consistent use of Pastel. Chardin did portraits with an open stroke, while La Tour preferred the blended finish. Thereafter, a galaxy of famous artists—Watteau, Copley, Delacroix, Millet, Manet, Renoir, Toulouse Lautrec, Vuillard, Bonnard, Glackens, Whistler, Hassam, William Merritt Chase—used Pastel for a finished work rather than for preliminary sketches.
Pastels from the 16th century exist today, as fresh as the day they were painted. Edgar Degas was the most prolific user of Pastel and its champion. His protégé, Mary Cassat, introduced Pastel to her friends in Philadelphia and Washington, and thus to the United States. In the Spring of 1983, Sotheby Parke Bernet sold at auction, two Degas Pastels for more than $3,000,000 each! Both Pastels were painted about 1880.
Note: Do not confuse Pastel with “colored chalk.” Chalk is a porous, limestone substance impregnated with dyes, whereas, Pastel is pure pigment—the same as is used in other permanent painting media.
Today, Pastel paintings have the stature of oil and watercolor as a major fine art medium. Many of our most renowned, living artists have distinguished themselves in Pastel and have enriched the art world with this beautiful medium.
So knowing all this, I often wonder, why don’t more artists use pastel? Is it because framing is a big issue? Works on paper need to be framed and pastel paintings have unique problems (see my April 27, 2013 blog post). Second only to the cost of maintaining a studio in New York City, frames are my single largest business expense. Sometimes I am grateful that pastel is a very slow medium. I typically finish 4 or 5 paintings in a year, which means I only have to pay for 4 or 5 frames!
Comments are welcome!
Tags: "What is Pastel?", 16th century, abrasive, across, allow, amount, apply, approach, around, article, artist, artwork, auction, beautiful, binder, blended, blog post, Bonnard, brilliant, cause, champion, change, Chardin, color, colored chalk, commonly, completely, confuse, conservation, consistent, Copley, cosmetic, cost, covered, create, day, Delacroix, diamond, dry, dry pigment, drying time, dyes, Edgar Degas, embed, enrich, exist, expense, expose, facet, famous, fashion, favor, fell in love, fine art, finish, first, frame, framed, framing, fresh, friends, gallaxy, German, Glackens, grateful, ground, happens, hard, Hassam, historically, impregnated, individual, infinite, instance, intriguing, introduce, invention, issue, Johann Thiele, knowing, La Tour, largest, leave, light, limestone, liquid, living distinguish, love, maintain, major, Manet, Mary Cassat, means, media, medium, microscope, Mike Mahon, Millet, minimum, much, neatly, New York City, oftentimes, oil watercolor, online, open stroke, overhead, oxidize, paint, painter, pale, palette, paper, particle, passage, paste, pastel, pastel painti, pay, permanent, Philadelphia, pigment, porous, portraits, powdered, power, prefer, preliminary, priism, primary, problem, prolific, propery, protege, pure, question, quote, range, rather, recently, reflect, Renoir, renowned, roll, Rosalba Camera, second, sketch, slow, soft, soft pastel, sold, somtimes, Sotheby Parke Bernet, spontaneous, spring, stability, starters, stature, stick, stroke, Studio, substance, subtle, sum up, technique, terminology, time, today, tooth, Toulouse Lautrec, trace, turrn, typically, unique, United States, use, variety, Venetian, Vuillard, Washington, Watteau, Whistler, William Merritt Chase, woman, wonder, word, work, working, year
A: In the early 90’s my husband, Bryan, and I made our first trip to Oaxaca and to Mexico City. At the time I had become fascinated with the Mexican “Day of the Dead” celebrations so our trip was timed to see them firsthand. Along with busloads of other tourists, we visited several cemeteries in small Oaxacan towns. The indigenous people tending their ancestor’s graves were so dignified and so gracious, even with so many mostly-American tourists tromping around on a sacred night, that I couldn’t help being taken with these beautiful people and their beliefs. From Oaxaca we traveled to Mexico City, where again I was entranced, but this time by the rich and ancient history. On our first trip we visited the National Museum of Anthropology, where I was introduced to the fascinating story of ancient Meso-American civilizations (it is still one of my favorite museums in the world); the ancient city of Teotihuacan, which the Aztecs discovered as an abandoned city and then occupied as their own; and the Templo Mayor, the historic center of the Aztec empire, infamous as a place of human sacrifice. I was astounded! Why had I never learned in school about Mexico, this highly developed cradle of western civilization in our own hemisphere, when so much time had been devoted to the cultures of Egypt, Greece, and elsewhere? When I returned home to Virginia I began reading everything I could find about ancient Mexican civilizations, including the Olmec, Zapotec, Mixtec, Aztec, and Maya. This first trip to Mexico opened up a whole new world and was to profoundly influence my future work. I would return there many more times.
Comments are welcome!
Tags: "Myth Meets Dream", abandoned, ancestors, ancient, astounded, Aztec, beautiful, belief, busloads, celebrations, cemetery, center, city, civilizations, class time, cradle, culture, Day of the Dead, devote, dignified, earliest, Egypt, elsewhere, empire, fascinating, favorite, figures, future, gracious, grave, Greece, hemisphere, highy developed, historic, history, home, human sacrifice, indigenous people, infamous, influence, intrigue, introduce, learn, Maya, Meso-american, Mexican, Mexico City, Mixtec, museum, National Museum of Anthropology, new world, night, Oaxaca, Oaxacan, Olmec, open up, painting, people, profound, read, return, rich, sacred, school, softt pastel on sandpaper, story, Templo Mayor, Teotihuacan, tourists, town, trip, understood, Virginia, western civilization, work, world, Zapotec
Q: Your relationship with photography has changed considerably over the years. How did you make use of photography in your first series of pastel-on-sandpaper paintings, “Domestic Threats”?
A: When my husband, Bryan, was alive I barely picked up a camera, except to photograph sights encountered during our travels. Throughout the 1990s and beyond (ending in 2007), I worked on my series of pastel-on-sandpaper paintings called, “Domestic Threats.” These were realistic depictions of elaborate scenes that I staged in our 1932 Sears house in Alexandria, Virginia, and later, in a New York sixth floor walk-up apartment, using the Mexican masks, carved wooden animals, and other folk art figures that I found on our trips to Mexico. I staged and lit these setups, while Bryan photographed them using his Toyo-Omega 4 x 5 view camera. We had been collaborating this way almost from the beginning (we met on February 21, 1986). Having been introduced to photography by his father at the age of 6, Bryan was a terrific amateur photographer. He would shoot two pieces of 4 x 5 film at different exposures and I would select one, generally the one that showed the most detail in the shadows, to make into a 20 x 24 photograph. The photograph would be my starting point for making the pastel painting. Although I work from life, too, I could not make a painting without mostly looking at a reference photo. After Bryan was killed on 9/11, I had no choice but to study photography. Over time, I turned myself into a skilled photographer.
Comments are welcome!
Tags: "Truth Betrayed by Innocence", 1932, 1990s, 20 x 24 photograph, 2001, 2007, 4 x 5 film, 4 x 5 view camera, 9/11, Alexandria (VA), amateur, apartment, beginning, Bryan Jack, camera, carved wooden animals, change, collaborating, depictions, detail, different, elaborate, ending, exposures, father, figures, first, folk art, found, husband, introduce, killed, lit, look, masks, Mexican, Mexico, New York, pastel painting, photograph, photographer, photography, realistic, reference photo, relationship, scene, Sears house, setup, shadows, shoot, sights, skilled, staged, starting point, study, Toyo-Omega, travel, trip, use, way, work from life, years
A: I always did so with my “Domestic Threats” paintings, but not with my current work. As I set up a group of figures to photograph, I would make up a story about what was happening between them: what the Day of the Dead skeleton I bought in Mexico City was saying to the frog/fish/human mask from Guerrero, for example. I was a big kid playing with my favorite toys! The stories were the spark to get me started on a new project, but I usually forgot about them afterwards. They were necessary, yet incidental to my creative process, which is probably why I have never written them down.
Years ago I had the experience of being at one of my solo shows when a group of elementary school children came along with their teacher. The teacher asked them to act out one of the stories in a particular painting. Ever curious about how people relate to my work, I didn’t introduce myself as the creator of the pieces hanging on the walls. I no longer remember the details, but their interpretations soon had me laughing. It is a constant surprise to hear from people encountering my work for the first time what they see in it, especially when those people are young kids with wild imaginations!
Comments are welcome!
Tags: "He Just Stood There Grinning", act out, afterwards, big kid, children, create, creative proces, creator, Day of the Dead skeleton, Domestic Threats, elementary school, encounter, fascinating, favorite, figures, first time, fish, forgot, frog, group, Guerrero (Mexico), hanging, human, imaginations, incidental, introduce, invariably, kids, laughing, learn, mask, Mexico City, paintings, photograph, playing, project, rich, series, soft pastel on sandpaper, solo show, spark, story, surprising, teacher, toys, walls, work, write, young